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|United States Patent
April 26, 1994
Elements of modular parking lot
A multi-level parking lot made from prefabricated reinforced concrete
modular elements is disclosed. The modular elements include plural parking
compartments with defined parts for passage between the compartments and
approach routes for entering the parking lot. The parking compartments
include connecting plates and integral units with four columns, each
integral unit including a slab integreal with and resting on the four
columns. A steel pipe protrudes from an upper surface of the column for
interfitting engagement with a corresponding hole in the connecting plate.
The individual units bear against themselves in a stable manner by virtue
of their weight without the need for any linking connections therebetween.
Foreign Application Priority Data
Erel; Yigal (59 Shearit Hapleta Street, Haifa, IL)
July 31, 1992
|Current U.S. Class:
|52/79.2; 52/79.13; 52/175
|Field of Search:
U.S. Patent Documents
|Bateman et al.
|Foreign Patent Documents
Primary Examiner: Friedman; Carl D.
Assistant Examiner: Mai; Lan C.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Lowe, Price, LeBlanc & Becker
Parent Case Text
This application is a division of application Ser. No. 07/587,933 filed
Sep. 25, 1990 now U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,913.
What is claimed is:
1. A modular concrete element for a single or a multi-level parking lot,
said element comprising a table-like unit having plural concrete columns,
and further including at least one hollow pipe which is embedded in at
least one of the concrete columns to extend along the length thereof and
protrude from an upper surface of the column, and further including a
tapered opening in a lower end of each column, said hollow pipe enabling a
cable to extend through the column for connection to a vertically adjacent
one of said elements.
2. The element of claim 1, wherein said element includes a top and wherein
said top and columns are of integral, unitary concrete construction.
3. The element of claim 1, wherein there is formed a recess along a side of
a top surface of said element to define a depth adapted to receive and
support another structure forming a part of said parking lot.
4. The modular element of claim 1, further including at least one lug
formed along an upper edge of the table-like unit to support adjacent
structure forming a part of the parking lot.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a modular pre-fabricated parking lot which
can be quickly constructed and dissembled. The invention also relates to
the individual pre-fabricated parts comprising this parking lot and to a
method for combining them.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
In large urban areas, and especially in city centers all over the world
there is a shortage of parking places. There are big cities where the
shortage of parking places is so acute that the center of town is closed
to private vehicles during certain hours of the day. Every year the number
of motor vehicles on the roads in the cities increases. The increasing
shortage of parking places implies waste of precious working time with
people driving around looking for a place to park the car.
This acute shortage of parking places, especially in the city centers of
towns is one of the reasons for the traffic jams there and often even
prevents many people from going into the city center. Lack of parking
places brings about the decline of these city centers due to the fact that
the economic, commercial and social development of a city requires the
simultaneous development of parking places.
The addition of parking places in the city center and in other essential
places such as airports, main railroad stations, inter-city buses etc. is
of the utmost significance in the development of a city and the maximum
exploitation of its center as an essential aspect of economic growth.
The main purpose of the present invention is to increase the number of
parking places in urban centers and other locations by use of the modular
prefabricated parking lot which is the subject of the invention. More
specifically, the present invention allows for the increase in parking
spots in already existing parking lots in urban centers and in other
According to the present invention temporary use may be made of a vacant
plot of land in the center of town on which it is not worthwhile to
construct a permanent parking lot because the owner of the plot is likely
to decide at a future date to put the plot of land to a different use.
There are many vacant plots of various sizes in every city, which can be
used as parking lots till the owner of the land decides on their final
use, or till a formal plan, suitable for that plot of land, is approved on
the request of the owner.
According to the present invention it is possible to erect on such plots of
land a parking building several stories high, of any desired size, from
modular pre-fabricated units, made in a factory and then transported by
trucks and assembled with the aid of big cranes and joined to each other
into a complete parking structure.
When the plot has to be used for a different purpose the different units
can be dissembled and be transported in their entirety to another plot of
land to be set up again as a new multi-level parking system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
According to the present invention there are several types of modular units
which can be assembled in diverse variations as in LEGO blocks to yield
different kinds of parking lots or to yield different structures to be
used for other purposes, as for industry or storage, or for converting
sheds into garages etc.
The invention relates to a parking lot, the individual parts comprising it
and the method for combining them. The parking lot is a modular
prefabricated single or multi-level structure constructed of one or more
different types of units which are combined according to the desired size
and shape of the structure and which can be dismantled and rebuilt or
permanently assembled according to the designated purpose of the structure
and/or the land.
The modular pre-fabricated parking lot is composed of parking units which
will hereinafter be denoted as A, a path between the parking units which
will be denoted as B, from elements involved in the approach to the
parking lot (such as ramps and steps) which will hereinafter be denoted as
C, and from an element of the foundation to be denoted as D.
The types of units which compose the parking spaces A will be denoted T,
CP, and L, and they are as follows:
a. Units which will hereinafter be denoted as Type T (Table) are table-like
units made of reinforced concrete or any other appropriate rigid material.
That is, their form is that of a square surface resting on four columns.
Along each column there passes one hollow pipe which protrudes from the
upper end of the column. Actually each such table-like unit is a
combination of columns, beams, and a ceiling into one unit. These T-type
units can be constructed in various ways. For example--a unit to be
hereinafter denoted T.sub.1, in which on both sides of the surface's width
there is a tooth-like recess and optionally, along its length there is a
rail beam on one or both sides. Another example is a unit to be
hereinafter denoted T.sub.2 in which on both sides of the surface's width
and on one of the sides of the length there is a recess. Type-T units may
be constructed without any recess or with any other modification, such as
with projections for support instead of recesses. For example two of the
table's columns may be combined into a table with one two or three walls
which pass between the columns.
A parking lot comprised only of Type-T units which stand adjacent to one
another can be constructed. The space between the "table's" legs is
utilized for parking. In a multi-level parking lot one table unit is
placed on another such that the bottom of each table leg on the upper
level fits into the end of the pipe which protrudes from the column of the
table on the lower level. A conic-shaped space at the bottom of each
column allows for a good fit and insertion of the opening on the bottom of
the table on the upper level into the pipes protruding from the level
b. Units to be hereinafter denoted CP are connecting plates of reinforced
concrete or any other rigid material. These connecting plates may be
constructed in various ways and may optionally contain one or more holes
on the width, such that into these holes can be fitted the pipes
protruding from the columns in unit T. These holes can be conically
shaped, that is--wider at the bottom--so as to make the fit easier. The CP
units may also optionally include recesses along the length or width which
serve as lower beams or as a base. The CP units function as a bridge
between the table units T in order to provide additional parking space and
to aid in the horizontal linkage of the structure.
There are many and varied ways of placing the connecting plates between the
table-like units. For example, two CP units may be placed between two
pairs of tables to Type T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 (adjacent to one another)
along their length, with each CP leaning on a recess on the width of the
table. Similarly, more CP units can be placed between a greater number of
tables, with the connecting plates leaning on the length or width of the
table on recesses or on projections.
The preferred method of constructing the parking spaces is by placing three
tablets to be denoted CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2 and CP.sub.3 between two pairs of
tables--T.sub.1 and T.sub.2. It should be emphasized that each pair of
tables is adjacent to each other along the length. These three connecting
plates are located on one side on the widthwise recess of the T.sub.1
T.sub.2 pair and on the other--on the widthwise recess of another adjacent
T.sub.1 T.sub.2 pair. The pipes protruding from the columns of the T.sub.1
T.sub.2 tables pass through holes in the appropriate places on the width
of the connecting plates. The central connecting plate--CP.sub.2 --leans
partially on table T.sub.1 and partially on Table T.sub.2 and thus in the
center of its width are two holes through which the end of the pipe from
table T.sub.1 and the end of the pipe of table T.sub.2 pass. Thus the
connecting plats serves also for the horizontal linkage of the structure's
The horizontal linkage between the type T units (the tables) can be made by
a metal plate with holes which are fitted into the pipes protruding from
the columns of adjacent tables, or alternatively--by means of said
The vertical connection between the tables which allows for the creation of
a structure with several levels is made by passing a steel cable along the
length of the hollow pipes and tying and suspending it on the top of the
upper unit and on the bottom edge which is located in the foundations.
Alternatively, a permanent vertical connection may be made by pouring any
cement-base material which hardens, such as grout, into the hollow pipes
which pass along the length of the table's columns.
c. Units to be denoted below as types L units are optional in the parking
lot, and with their aid, additional parking spaces may be added at the
edges of the structure. These units, which are also made of reinforced
concrete, are composed of a plate which stands on two columns on one of
its sides and which has the shape of a table which is missing two legs on
one of its widths. This item is placed in the structure so that on one
side it stands on the two columns, and on the other--the plate leans on
the width side of table T such that the holes on the edge of the plate fit
into the ends of the pipes which protrude from the table's columns.
Preferably, the three units to be denoted below L.sub.1, L.sub.2 and
L.sub.3 are attached on the structure's edge to the pair of units T.sub.1
T.sub.2, such that the connection of the plates of the elements L.sub.1,
L.sub.2, and L.sub.3 to the pair of tables is done in exactly the same way
as the connection of the CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2, and CP.sub.3 units to the
B--The Passage Between the Compartments
There is only one type of unit which creates the passage between the
compartments. These are plates made of reinforced concrete which
hereinafter will be denoted bridge plates. These plates connect two
sections of parking spaces and are placed as a bridge on the recesses of T
and CP units on each side. The space created as a result of the creation
of this bridge serves for passage of vehicles into the parking
C--Units Enabling the Approach of Persons and Vehicles to the Various
Levels of the Parking Lot (Step Ramps)
The units which create an approach to the parking lot will be hereinafter
denoted as R and S.
a. The units to be denoted hereinafter as R are ramps for vehicles to
ascend to higher levels in the parking lot. The ramps are constructed of
four subunits to be hereinafter denoted as R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3 and
R.sub.4. All are made of reinforced concrete or other rigid materials.
R.sub.1 is a sloped unit on which a vehicle ascends part of the way to a
higher level. Optionally, on both its sides there is a beam which supports
the ramp and which also serves as a railing to prevent vehicles from
falling. One side of the unit leans on the ground or on the bottom of the
lower unit, and the other--on two columns.
R.sub.2 is a sloped unit shaped like a table whose legs on one side are
shorter than on the other and on which the vehicle ascends to a higher
level. Optionally, on both its sides there is a beam which supports the
ramp and which serves also as a railing to prevent vehicles from falling.
R.sub.3 is a unit similar to R.sub.2, which allows the vehicle's continued
ascent to the top level. It is table-shaped, and optionally along its
length on the external side there is a beam supporting the ramp and also
preventing vehicles from falling.
R.sub.4 is a unit which is also table-like in shape and which serves as an
area for entry of vehicles to the parking lots.
The ramp may be constructed consecutively or
alternatively--non-consecutively, such that the ramp reaches a given level
and the vehicle ascends to another ramp which stands on the ramp below it.
The construction of the ramp can be similar to the construction of the
parking spaces, except that the R.sub.2 unit is a sloped table and R.sub.4
is a horizontal table, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.3 are connecting plates with
holes fitting into R.sub.2 and R.sub.4 units respectively.
b. Units to be hereinafter denoted S are steps made of reinforced concrete
or any other rigid material and which connect the various levels for
It should be noted that according to the invention steel railings may be
added to prevent falls from the parking level and for decorative purposes.
The railings may be added to the T and CP units.
Unit D is a foundation unit made of metal, its shape being a hollow
cylinder or a cube and on its top end there protrudes a hollow pipe on
which the table column rests. This foundation unit is mostly sunken into
the concrete poured into the structure's foundations, and its upper part
protrudes above the cement. The table's legs stand on such units so that
the pipe which protrudes from the upper end of the foundation unit enters
the conic opening on the bottom of the table's legs. To this unit is
attached the suspended cable so as to attach to the foundations.
The above invention relates to the parking lot itself, the units which
compose it and the method for its construction. The invention in its
entirety, including the method for its construction, will be clarified and
exemplified with the aid of FIGS. 1 through 30. These examples and figures
are in no way intended to limit the scope of the protection of the present
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1: Describes a general view of the parking lot constructed of a system
of pre-fabricated modular units. The parts of the modular units are
denoted in the figure by Latin letters in order to distinguish them from
FIG. 2: Describes a general view of the parking lot constructed of an odd
number of modular units along its length.
FIG. 3: Describes an example of a view from above of the parking lot
constructed of an even number of modular units along its length.
FIG. 4: Describes the internal facade of the parking lot.
FIG. 5: A partial three-dimensional view.
FIG. 6: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 7: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 8: Describes a side view of Units T.sub.1 and T.sub.2.
FIG. 9: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 10: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 11: Describes a side view of unit CP.sub.2 resting on a recess of unit
T.sub.1 in the system.
FIG. 12: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 13: Describes a lateral-section of units CP.sub.1 CP.sub.2, and
FIG. 14: Describes a lateral view of unit CP.sub.3 resting on a recess of
the T.sub.2 unit in the system.
FIG. 15: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 16: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 17: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIG. 18: Describes a foundation unit (to be hereinafter denoted as D).
FIG. 19: Describes the vertical attachment of the columns.
FIG. 20: Describes the vertical combination of units.
FIG. 21: Describes the ramp for ascending to the parking lot.
FIG. 22: Describes a modular unit in the ramp (to be hereinafter denoted as
FIG. 23: Describes a modular unit in the ramp (to be hereinafter denoted as
FIG. 24: Describes a modular unit in the ramp (to be hereinafter denoted as
FIG. 25: Describes a modular unit in the ramp (to be hereinafter denoted as
FIG. 26A and 26B: Describes modular units in the system which serve as
steps (to be hereinafter denoted S.sub.1 and S.sub.2).
FIG. 27: Describes a modular unit in the system (to be hereinafter denoted
FIGS. 28A and 28B: Describes an extension element for a column.
FIG. 29: Describes a cross-section of an extension element for a pair of
FIGS. 30A-30D: Describes typical cross-sections of various columns.
Below is a detailed description of the invention with the aid of the
Describes a general view of an example of a parking lot which can be
constructed by combining the modular pre-fabricated units of the system
(hereinafter--the "units" or the "items"). A detailed description of the
various units comprising the different systems, their structure, and the
way in which they are combined with one another will be presented below.
The above figure presents an example of a parking lot with a ramp (1) by
means of which the vehicles move from level to level, but according to the
present invention parking lots may be constructed with elevators which
will take the vehicles up and down between the levels. (For the details of
the ramp and its units, see FIGS. 21 to 25). The figure describes three
parking levels but, according to the present invention, a parking lot with
any number of levels desired can be constructed (subject, of course, to
the conditions of the area, the land, and the strength of the materials).
Modular units of steps (2) which afford drivers entry and exit from the
parking level can be added to the modular system. (Elevators for the
service of the public can also be included in the system).
The parking lot as presented in the above figure and in the other figures
describing the structure, are of the form of side, roadway, side; that
is--a side which contains parking spaces, a roadway in the center, and
another side which also contains parking spaces.
In principle, the parking lot can be constructed in a variety of ways. For
example--side, roadway or a parking lot of the type--side, roadway, side,
in which the difference in height between sides is a half a level so that
vehicles can progress in a circular fashion.
It should be emphasized that despite the fact that the main use of this
system is as a parking lot, it can be adapted for industry and/or storage
or sheds for garages.
Describes a general view of a level including an odd number of units along
its length. Every type of unit is denoted by a different Latin letter. The
structure of each unit and the manner in which it is attached to the
adjacent unit on the parking level which includes an odd number of units
along its length differs from that which includes an even number of units.
Describes a general view of a level which includes an even number of units
along its length. The structure is characterized by the addition of units
L.sub.1, L.sub.2, and L.sub.3 which will be described in detail in FIGS.
15 through 17.
Describes the internal facade of the parking lot in a parking lot which is
comprised of an odd number of units along its length. (In a parking lot
comprised of an even number of units an L.sub.3 unit should be added at
Provides a perspective of the parking lot, specifically of type T and CP
We shall now describe each unit and the way in which the units are
combined, both horizontally and vertically.
All units to be hereinafter described are constructed from reinforced
concrete but can also be constructed from any other material which is
strong and can bear the weight of vehicles, and all are produced modularly
and are transported to the area in which the parking lot is constructed by
appropriate means of transportation.
Describes the modular unit T.sub.1 in the system. This unit resembles a
four-legged table. Its length, width, and height allow parking of vehicles
between its legs while allowing enough space as to conform to all
regulations. Along the length of each foot (3) there is a hollow steel
pipe which protrudes over the unit (4) as depicted in the figure. On both
width sides of the unit's upper part, there is a step (a recess),
hereinafter referred to as "the step" (5).
The four pipes come out of the lower part of the step. As will be
exemplified below, this step will allow for the attachment of additional
units with the help of the pipes.
Along one of the unit's lengths there is a railing to prevent vehicles from
falling. The railing can be an integral part of the unit or be a separate
It should be emphasized once again that all the figures presented until now
and below with regard to this invention constitute only examples and are
not in any way intended to limit the scope of the invention. For example,
in unit T.sub.1 the feet can be round, square, etc. and not necessarily
rectangular as exemplified in the figure. It should be noted that each
pair of legs on the width of the unit can also be attached by a wall, and
thus the wall also serves as one large column.
Describes the modular unit T.sub.2 in the system. This unit is identical to
the unit T.sub.1, except for the following differences:
A. The step (6) is also located on one length side in addition to the two
width sides. The function of this step is to allow the ends of the
concrete plates to lean.
B. There is no railing.
In modular units T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 as well, each pair of legs on the
width of the unit can be combined, and thus the wall created between the
legs serves as one large column.
Describes a side view of units T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 as they are placed in
the system. The units are adjacent to one another along their length (7)
with the railing of unit T.sub.1 facing outward on one side (8) and the
lengthwise step of unit T.sub.2 facing the internal facade on the other
FIG. 5 also presents a clear example of the way in which units T.sub.1 and
T.sub.2 can be placed in the system.
In FIGS. 2 and 3 the location of units T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 relative to
other units in the system can be seen.
Between each pair of units T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 on each level of the system,
CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2 and CP.sub.3 units are placed which --in addition to
being parts which add to the parking lot's dimensions--serve also for the
connection of T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 units among themselves and between them
and other T.sub.1 T.sub.2 pairs on the level.
Describes a CP.sub.1 unit in the system. It is composed of a plate made of
reinforced concrete which along its length has a railing (10) as
exemplified in the figure. The railing does not reach the end of the
plate, but rather leaves a space (11) on each side. On both ends near the
railing there are holes of appropriate size so that the pipes which
protrude in unit T.sub.1 near the railing can pass through them. Unit
CP.sub.1 is placed between two T.sub.1 items and rests on two steps of
adjacent T.sub.1 items. The width of unit CP.sub.1 is smaller than that of
unit T.sub.1 so that it fits into only part of the widthwise step of unit
Describes unit CP.sub.2 in the system. This unit is comprised of a plate of
reinforced concrete such that in the center of each width at appropriate
intervals there is a pair of holes (12) and (13) as illustrated in the
figure. Through these holes the appropriate protruding pipes of items
T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 will pass (than the T.sub.1 and T.sub.2 units will be
attached to one another and to unit CP.sub.2). In each pair of holes, one
(14) through which the pipe of unit T.sub.1 will pass and the other (15)
through which the protruding pipe of unit T.sub.2 will pass, the CP.sub.2
unit is placed between two pairs of T.sub.1 T.sub.2 units, such that half
of it is placed on the widthwise step of the T.sub.2 unit and the other
half--on the widthwise step of the T.sub.2 unit, such that the appropriate
pair of pipes of pair T.sub.1 T.sub.2 passes through it on each width.
Describes a side view of the way in which unit CP.sub.2 rests on the step
of unit T.sub.1.
Describes unit CP.sub.3 in the system. This unit is composed of a
reinforced concrete plate. On both ends of the length there are two holes
(16) (17) and a step (18). Unit CP.sub.3 rests on the two widthwise steps
of adjacent T.sub.2 units, with the pipes--(18) and (19) fitting into the
respective holes (16) and (17). The CP unit can also have four holes in
This figure describes a side view of units CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2, and
CP.sub.3, such that CP.sub.1 is the unit facing outward and on whose end
there is a railing and CP.sub.3 faces the internal facade and on whose
edge there is a recess for placing the concrete plates.
Illustrates a side view of how plate CP.sub.3 rests on unit T.sub.2, and
how the recesses on both width sides of the units fit into one another
(the recess of the T.sub.2 unit with the reverse recess of unit CP.sub.3).
A general side view of the way in which the T.sub.2 and CP.sub.3 elements
are attached is found in FIG. 4 (FIG. 13 is an enlargement of the circle
which is denoted a number 1 in FIG. 4).
As we saw until now, most of the parking lot is constructed of two pairs of
T.sub.1 T.sub.2 units, such that between them is the trio of units
CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2 and CP.sub.3. In this manner a parking lot of any
desired size may be constructed with an odd number of elements.
It again should be emphasized that the structure comprising mainly of pairs
of T.sub.1 T.sub.2 units between which are trios of CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2 and
CP.sub.3 units as illustrated in the figures is only an illustration. A
parking lot can be constructed from a wide variety of other combinations,
such as only with type-T tables without connecting plates or with the
combination of table-connecting plate-table, with the connecting plate
placed parallel to the table. Thus there will be two appropriate tables
and two connecting plates or any other combination.
If the constraints of the area require the construction of a system with an
even number of elements, three additional units --L.sub.1, L.sub.2 and
L.sub.3 --must be added to the pair of end units T.sub.1 T.sub.2. The
description of L.sub.1 through L.sub.3 and the way in which they are
attached to the T.sub.1 T.sub.2 pair will be illustrated by means of FIGS.
Describes the L.sub.1 unit in the system, which is shaped as a long table
missing two legs. This unit has two legs only on one width side (20), from
which two hollow steel pipes protrude and which pass along their length
(21). Along the length of the edge of the "table" plate there is a railing
(22), and also on the corner on the side of the railing (as an integral
part or separately) and opposite the legs--a single hole (23). This unit
is placed in the system so that on one side it leans on two legs and on
the other--it leans on the recess of the T.sub.1 unit such that through
the hole in it, there passes the appropriate pipe of the T.sub.1 unit. The
width of unit L.sub.1 is smaller than the width of unit T.sub.1 and
identical to that of unit CP.sub.1.
The two legs in the above unit may be connected such that the unit will
stand on a wall instead of on two legs. (With regard to the location of
unit L.sub.1 in the system, see also the general view in FIG. 3).
Describes the modular unit L.sub.2 in the system. Its shape also resembles
an elongated table with two legs missing. This unit differs from unit
L.sub.1 in that the L.sub.2 unit does not have a railing, and instead of
one hole, it has a pair of holes at the center of the width as illustrated
in the figure (24) (25). The width of unit L.sub.2 is identical to that of
unit CP.sub.2. This unit is placed in the system such that on one side it
leans on two legs and on the other--one half leans on the recess of unit
T.sub.1 and the other on the recess of unit T.sub.2, such that a pipe
protruding from unit T.sub.2 passes through a second hole (25) (and thus
it aids in attaching the T.sub.1 T.sub.2 units). Along its length the
L.sub.2 unit is placed like a sandwich between the L.sub.1 and L.sub.3
units (see also general view in FIG. 3).
In this unit as well the two legs can be attached as described with regard
to unit L.sub.1.
Describes the modular unit L.sub.3 in the system. Its shape is also that of
an elongated table with two legs missing. It differs from the L.sub.1 and
L.sub.2 units in that along one of its lengths there is a recess (26)
which is the beam bearing the concrete plates. In the corner (on the side
of the length of the recess) there is a hole (27). This unit, as the two
previous ones, can lean on a wall instead of on two legs.
This unit does not have a railing. and as in the L.sub.1 and L.sub.2 units
along its legs there pass two hollow steel pipes which protrude from it.
The width of unit L.sub.3 is smaller than that of unit T.sub.2 to which it
is attached and identical to that of unit CP.sub.3. This unit is placed in
the system so that on one side it leans on its two legs, and on the
other--it leans on the recess of the T.sub.2 unit, with the appropriate
protruding pipe in the T.sub.2 unit (and the one close to the internal
facade) fitting through the hole of unit L.sub.3. As illustrated the pair
of units T.sub.1 T.sub.2 are connected to one another on a given level and
are inseparable inasmuch as they are connected with the three
units--CP.sub.1, CP.sub.2 and CP.sub.3.
Describes the foundation unit E. This is a metal cylinder whose bottom is
open and whose tope is closed (29). In the lower part there are protruding
metal strips (30) whose function it is to anchor this unit more strongly,
which is sunken in reinforced concrete which covers most of it up to a
level near its upper part (31). From the upper part of the foundation unit
there protrudes a hollow pipe (23) which has a cone-shaped opening. The
conic opening is anchored to the sides of the unit by means of a metal
On the foundation unit there stands a table leg such that the pipe which
protrudes on the upper end of the unit enters the conic opening on the
bottom of the table leg. When a taut cable is pulled, the cable is tied to
the conic opening of the above foundation units and on the conic opening
on the upper end of the structure.
Illustrates the way in which the columns are attached vertically. As
illustrated earlier, there are hollow steel pipes (35) along the length of
the columns. Along the length of each pipe there passes a steel taut cable
such that on both ends of the column (36) and of the base (27) there is a
conus. The cable pulled between the two conii holds the various parts of
the column in a stable vertical position.
The circle denoted by number 5 in this figure is detailed in FIG. 20.
We emphasize here and will also illustrate below that more than one pipe
can pass through each column.
Depicts the path of the taut cable in connecting the elements. On the
protruding pipe (39) there fits an additional unit above which there
stands a leg of an additional unit on the bottom of which there is also a
conic opening (40).
The cable is pulled from the two extreme conii on the top and on the
foundations of the structure. The dimension denoted in this figure are for
purposes of illustration only.
By this method. the system can be dismantled by detaching the taut cable
and separating the units from one another, and transferring the system and
constructing it on a new site. If desired, the units can be permanently
attached to one another by pouring concrete into the vertical pipes which
pass along the length of the legs of the units. Additional units in the
system which is the subject of the present invention and which should be
added, especially with regard to a parking lot are those units required
for the construction of a ramp for ascent to the parking lot. The details
of the ramp are illustrated in FIGS. 21 through 25.
Illustrates a ramp for ascent to the parking lot, to levels two and three.
The ramp is constructed of four types of units--R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3
and R.sub.4 --all of which are constructed of reinforced concrete or any
other rigid material.
Describes the unit R.sub.1 of the ramp for ascent to the parking lot. on
this unit the vehicle ascends the first half of the slope of the incline.
On each of its sides there is a beam which holds the ramp and which also
serves as a railing to prevent vehicles from falling (41). At the
beginning of the incline there is a sloped metal surface attached to the
concrete and which allows vehicles to ascend on the unit without colliding
into the concrete recess.
Describes unit R.sub.2 of the ramp for ascent to the parking lot. On this
unit the vehicle ascends the second half of the slope of the incline. On
each of its sides is a beam which serves also as a railing preventing
vehicles from falling (42).
Describes the unit R.sub.3 of the ramp for ascent to the parking lot. This
unit serves as a surface for entrance and departure of vehicles on the
edge of the slope of the ramp. Its shape resembles a table and along its
length on the exterior there is a beam which bears the ramp and which also
serves as a railing for preventing vehicles from falling (43).
Describes the unit R.sub.4 of the ramp. It is shaped like a table and bears
the elements R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 when ascending to those levels
beyond the first.
FIGS. 26A and 26B:
Describes the units S.sub.1 and S.sub.2 in the system. Unit S.sub.1
constitutes steps for the passage of pedestrians from level to level. A
steel railing can be attached to this item.
Unit S.sub.2 in FIG. 26A is a preferred alternative for attaching the
stairs in the pre-fabricated system. It is comprised of one unit of poured
concrete shaped like stairs, such that on both of its ends there are
columns, on its bottom--upwards, and on its upper side--downwards. In
these columns, exactly as in the columns of the T tables, there are
protruding pipes, and they can fit into any suitable place in the parking
lot system, among themselves--as illustrated in FIG. 26A or between them
and the tables.
It is possible and desirable to attach to these stairs railing for
preventing falls as illustrated in the figure.
Describes unit S.sub.3 in the system. This unit is shaped like an elongated
table and its function is to bear S.sub.1 when it is necessary to ascend
more than one level. Units S.sub.1 and S.sub.3 can be viewed when
integrated in the system in FIG. 1.
The principle on which the invention is based is similar to that of "LEGO:
blocks in children's games. There are several types of units which can be
combined or taken apart as needed and varied structures may be
constructed. The units are portable and can be transported from place to
place. Structures of any desired area, height, and circumference may be
constructed. According to the invention the units may be combined
temporarily (by a taut cable) or permanently (by putting concrete in the
In order to increase the possibilities for using the various systems
according to the invention, several additional items may be added as
If it is desired to raise the height of all the levels or of a specific
level for any reason, for example--if the structure is needed for storage
(rather than for parking), extensions may be added to the columns as
described in FIGS. 28-29.
FIGS. 28A and 28B:
Describes an extension for a column in order to raise th height of the
parking compartment. Along the length of the extension there is a steel
pipe (48) whose edge protrudes and whose bottom part is cone-shaped (49).
Describes a cross-section of the unit which serves to extend a pair of
adjacent columns. All the columns which were illustrated in this invention
had only one pipe along their length. The scope of the invention is not
limited to only one pipe, and according to the invention there may be
columns with different numbers of pipes.
Describes characteristics cross-sections of various types of columns having
different numbers of pipes along their length. Also illustrated (50) in
FIG. 30C is a connection between a pipe with a closed circumference and
one with an open circumference. When the open pipe enters into the closed
pipe, one pipe can be fitted into the other with no space between them as
a result of some flexibility of the inner open pipe.
The preferred material for construction of the units comprising the system
is reinforced concrete, bit in principle they may also be made of any
other durable and rigid material or any mixture of materials which is
strong, stable and durable as is reinforced concrete.
All the units described heretofore can be also produced without pipes along
the length of the columns. The system which is the subject of the
invention, when of one or two stories, can stand in a stable way also when
the units stand on top of each other or side by side without being
Moreover, according to the invention, the units can be used without any
pipes to create a system of any desired size when conventional methods for
the combination of pre-fabricated elements are used, such as tying,
screws, welding, soldering, etc. or with pipes without a cable up to two
The units may be used to create a system by using only some of the types of
units illustrated according to need, for example--use only of type T units
or only T and CP units.